Anders Celsius developed his temperature-scale in 1742, just months before his death. Previously, he made many experiments to study the dependence of the melting and boiling point of water from the ambient pressure. He discovered that the melting temperature of water from the ambient pressure is independent.
|lower fixed point||boiling point of water at normal pressure||0 °C|
|upper fixed point||melting point of water||100 °C|
|fundamental distance||100 degrees|
It was his pupil, Mårten Strömer, who returned the scale, so that it received its current form. Some sources write, that Carl von Linné, the famous botanist and zoologist, who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of binomial nomenclature, developed the "forwards-Celsius-scale".
Celsius called his thermometer and the unit "centigrade". Only in 1948, the 9th International General Conference on Weights and Measures has determined the name "Celsius".
Anders Celsius was born on the seventh of December 1701, according to the Gregorian calendar, in Uppsala in Sweden. He came from an aristocratic family. Both his grandfathers and his father worked as professors for mathematics and astronomy in Uppsala.
With 24 he also became a professor for astronomy. He was a member of an expedition to measure the earth's size and he was the first, to measure the brightness of stars, even though in all of Sweden there were no observatory's. His first experiences with practical astronomy was in 1732 on a study trip, which also him led to Nuremberg. At Celsius' instigation the first observatory was opened in Sweden in 1741.
Anders Celsius died, according to the Gregorian calendar on the sixth of may 1744, aged 44 from tuberculosis in Uppsala.